In electrophoresis all molecules that carry a charge can be transported.
The mainly used techniques are:
1. SDS-electrophoresis of proteins: All SDS-protein mycelles are negatively
charged and denaturated. They all run to the anode showing their molecular
weights. The proteins will not show any biological function after separation!
2. IEF of proteins: During the isoelectric focusing the proteins are separated
along a pH-gradient according to their isoelectric points (PI). Native method.
3. Native electrophoretis, 2 methods:
-- Anodic native electrophoresis of proteins and DNA in a basic buffer-system:
The proteins and the DNA-fragments are negatively charged.
-- Cathodic native electrophoresis of proteins in an acidic buffer-system:
The proteins are positively charged.
4. 2D-electrophoresis is a combination of an IEF in the first dimension and a SDS
electrophoresis in the second.
5. Blotting: The separated molecules are transferred to a membrane’s surface.
Then detection methods are possible, even if big molecules (f.e. IgG)